Patanjali Yoga Sutra

Who was Patanjali?

Patanjali was great synchronizer of  yoga sutra
The period of patanjali is considered as 250 B.C. to 250 A.D.

Before Patanjali also yoga was prevailed but he has given scientific, systematic, rational and logical form of yoga.

P.Y.S has four Pada

Samadhi Pada

Samadhi pada- it gives explanation of immediate purpose of yoga and method for attainment (51 sutra)

Sadhana Pada

Sadhana pada- it explains yoga philosophy and kriya yoga and astang yoga (55 sutra)

Vibhuti Pada

Vibhuti pada- it gives great details about supernatural power which  can be achieved by the way of yoga ( 55/56 sutra)

Kaivalya Pada

Kaivalya pada- it gives explanation of ultimate purpose ( liberation) ( 34 sutra)

Pranayama – physiological view

Patanjala Yoga Sutra

P.Y.S. is unique ancient literature available to mankind
In only 195 sutra ( verse) he has describe entire yoga philosophy, along with its practices, concepts, advantage, way for liberation also. So each word holds utmost importance in P.Y.S.

Pranamaya kosha (Physiological Body)

There is pain and suffering in  life-  that should be avoided- ( heya)

There must be cause of pain and suffering ( heyahetu)
Removal of pain is possible ( hana)

There are ways to remove pain and suffering
(hanopaya)

This is the same approach buddha has explained his philosophy.

Atha yoganushasanam

Now begins the discipline  way of yoga.

Yogascittavritti nirodhadh
Citta- no equivalent word in english

its mind + intelligent +ego
Vritti- tendenancy
Nirodh- cessation

Vrittis are five and of two type

Klista– harmful vrittis Alista– non harmful vrittis They work on psychological level

Five vrittis

  1. Pramana– experiences through right knowledge
  2. Viprayaya– experience through knowledge
  3. Vikalpa– experience through imagination
  4. Smriti– experience through past
  5. Nidra– experience gained in the sleep.

Five vrittis

Isvara is philosophical god not mythological god
Omnipresent and omniscient
Free from result of all kind of action
Aumkar is sound manifestation of isvara

Five vrittis

Shraddha, virya, smriti, samadhi, pragna By developing Faith Vigour Memory Knowledge gained through Samadhi

Tada drastuh svarupe vasthanam

Than seer established in its own form, which is eternal and blissful Because of mind, intellect and ego we conceive the world  with their effect. We are unable to see true nature of  self and world But when there is cessation of cittavritti we are able to have true perception. Than seer established in its own form, which is eternal and blissful Because of mind, intellect and ego we conceive the world  with their effect. We are unable to see true nature of  self and world But when there is cessation of cittavritti we are able to have true perception.

Way for cessattion of cittavritti

Abyas and vairagya
Isvarapranidhana
Shraddha, virya, smriti, samadhi pragna

Abyas and vairagya

  1. Abyas– regular and continuous practice with receptive attitude of any element of individual’s liking.
  2. Vairagya– attitude of the detachment from the worldly and non-worldly objects ( not living the objects but separation on perceptual and conceptual plane)

Antaraya

They work on psychophysiological level
  1. Vyadhi– disease
  2. Styana– mental lazziness
  3. Samsaya– doubt
  4. Alasya– lazziness
  5. Pramad– tendency towards comfort
  6. Avirati– attachment
  7. Bhrantidarsana– delusion
  8. Alabadh bhaumiktva– not attaining desired state
  9. Anavasthitatva– not maintaining desired state

Citta prasadana

As when citta is hyperactive it becomes cause for various physical disease, mental disease as well as undesirable mental state. These states are obstacles in yoga- sadhana One must first work upon these obstacles, patanjali has given seven methods for cittaprasadana

Vikshepa sahbhuva

They work on physiological level

Dukha – pain
Daurmansya – depression
Angmeyajayatva – tremors of the body
Svasa prasvasa –  alteration in breathing

Citta prasadana method

  • 1st method – By developing friendliness towards pleasure, compassion towards pain, gladness towards virtue and aloofness towards vice
  • 2nd method – By the way of exhalation and retension of breath ( pranayama)
  • 3rd method – By focusing mind on particular objects, which is generally full of sense experience.
  • 4th method – By griefless illumination
  • 5th method – On continual remeberance or meditation of person who has transcended Citta prasadana
  • 6th method – Experience gained by dreamless sleep,
  • 7th method – Through meditation on one’s liking

Eight limb of Astang Yoga

Yama

Niyama

Asana

Pranayama

Pratyahara

Dharana

Dhyana

Samadhi

Pranayama – physiological view

1 – Yama

yamas are five they are mahavratas, they are don’t s, they are social conduct also

  1. satya ( truthfulness)
  2. Ahimsa ( non-violance)
  3. Asteya (non- stealing)
  4. Brahmacharya ( devine routine)
  5. Aparigrah (non- possessiveness)

2 – Niyama

niyamas are five they are do’s they are personal conduct.

  1. Sauca- ( cleanliness)
  2. Santosa ( contentment)
  3. Tapas ( austerity)
  4. Svadhyaya ( self- study)
  5. Isvaraparidhana ( devotion to the god)

3 – Asana

steady and comfortable postures, which is effortless and your concentration becomes infinite.

4 – Pranayama

a willful alteration of breathing which leads to automatic stoppage of breath.

5 – Pratyahara

withdrawal of sense organ

6 – Dharana

a willful concentration of mind on the one objects.

7 – Dhyana

Meditation, a natural state of mind where mind becomes stable on one object without any effort.

 

8 – Samadhi

A process to cultivate the bliss.